9th International Conference on Geomorphology (9th ICG) 6th - 11th November 2017
Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi

Organized By: Indian Institute of Geomorphologists (IGI)

Session # Sub-themes
S1 Theoretical Geomorphology
Chairs: Olav SLAYMAKER (Canada)
Savindra SINGH (India)

Only in exceptional cases can significant changes in landforms or landscape be observed directly; field experiments at real world scale are notoriously difficult to conduct. Links between process mechanics and landform evolution are still sketchy at best. Furthermore the property of emergence in complex systems complicates understanding of landform evolution at different spatial and temporal scales. For all these reasons increased sophistication with respect to assumptions about equilibrium in landscapes in space and over time is required. Naïve uniformitarianism can no longer be regarded as valid because of the wide range of relaxation times that coexist in the landscape.

Contributions to (a) the development of new theory (b) improved formulation of old theories and (c) theory that incorporates the crucial role of humans in the understanding of geomorphic systems are encouraged.
S2 Applied Geomorphology
Chairs: Thomas GLADE (Austria)
Applied geomorphology concerns the application of geomorphological knowledge and techniques to problems that have, or may have, adverse socio-economic impacts. At one end of the spectrum, the civil engineering industry has been increasingly utilising geomorphological expertise for the investigation of ground problems and the design of engineering solutions. The latter increasingly incorporate geomorphological principles or even processes, such as the construction of artificial coastal breakwaters that cause stable beaches to accumulate naturally behind them. ‘Engineering geomorphology’ is thus a widely recognised subdiscipline alongside ‘engineering geology’. At the other end of the spectrum, technological developments in monitoring and modelling tools and strategies for environmental management, including hazard and risk studies, also fall within the scope of this session. Indeed, geomorphological expertise can occasionally be used to initiate beneficial change to a landscape system (in socio-economic terms) although in most cases the focus is to identify and prevent or reduce adverse effects. Examples of the range of topics include the long-term resilience of Himalayan highways to the protection of a small historic building from future flood damage. The aim of this session is to explore the extent to which geomorphology can contribute, is contributing and should contribute to the investigation and solution or management of problems with actual or potential impacts on communities, societies and economies, in the context of a changing climate and continuing expansion of human activities into ever more hazardous terrains. We invite contributions that examine any of these issues with respect to any type of landscape context at any spatial or temporal scale, from conceptual, technological, economic or any other relevant perspectives, particularly if they demonstrate novel applications of geomorphological understanding to such problems. We will explore options for publishing contribution in special issues of relevant international journals according to the range of content in submissions received.
S3 Geomorphic Processes in coupled human and natural systems
(Session of the IGU Commission Geomorphology, Environment and Society)
Chairs: Jorge RAMIREZ (Switzerland)
Michael MEADOWS (South Africa)
Jiun-Chuan LIN (Taiwan)
High geomorphic activity places communities at risk to landscape changes that include coastal erosion, landslides, river floods, and soil erosion. Regardless of our general understanding of geomorphic processes causing these landscape changes, it remains a challenge in geomorphology to foresee events and provide information and warnings to vulnerable communities. Failure to predict and explain geomorphic events is partly due to non-linear behaviour inherent within geomorphic systems that display disproportional responses to perturbations. Likewise, prediction is made difficult by the broader social context (e.g. land use change, human behaviour, and population dynamics) in which these events occur. As such, particular landscape changes, both desirable and undesirable, may be regarded as emergent phenomena of large complex systems which are characterized by multiple domains (e.g. geomorphic processes, society, climate and/or economic changes) and two-way feedbacks between these domains. Of particular importance are feedbacks between geomorphic processes and humans, and much of the existing research investigating landscape changes continues to lack interdisciplinary approaches that equally consider both natural and social processes/feedbacks. This session focuses on interdisciplinary research focusing on landscape changes and linkages to communities. We welcome empirical and modelling studies that investigate anthropogenic changes to the landscape, mitigating impacts of climate change, community risk/resilience, positive/negative feedbacks, thresholds/tipping points, spatial/temporal scales, river rehabilitation, and land use change.
S4 Geomorphological Resources
Chairs: Mario PANIZZA (Italy)
Manmohan KAUL (India)
Geomorphological resources include both raw material (related to geomorphologic processes) and landforms; both of which are useful to man or may become useful depending on economic, social, cultural and technological circumstances. Geomorphological processes provide in depth investigation in determining the form and evolution of landforms starting with tectonic geomorphology, and then focusing on mountain and hill slopes, rivers, glaciers, coasts, and paleoenvironment leading to the formulation of different set geomorphic resources genetically related to highland-lowland interaction. For instance, concerning raw material, littoral deposits can become important, economically valuable and considered as geomorphologic resource for sand quarrying and alluvial soil for agrarian economy. The Alps, Rocky mountains and Himalaya have dramatic landscape of formidable mountainous range with snow, glaciers, lakes; and surging rivers that become a natural geomorphological resource used by the humans as perennial water for drinking, generation of hydro power, development of agriculture and for areas of recreation. The Himalayan glaciers comprise nearly 30% of glaciers outside the polar region and cover an area 20 times the glaciers of Alps. The high relief of Ladakh mountain ranges house a number of historic monuments of architectural workmanship in the form of “Gumpas” (Buddhist monastery) carved out in valley walls of Himalaya, reflecting relief as site specific geomorphic resource as a component of economically valuable cultural heritage. In valley section the moraine complexes along with fluvial-glacial terraces evolved by advance and retreat of glaciers, lead to transfer of sediments from valley head to valley basin, resulted in production of virgin soil, formulating resources as “constructed by human needs” for agrarian use. The present session seeks abstracts related to any type of Geomorphological resources and their implications both on the society and environment.
S5 Volcanic Geomorphology
Chairs: Paola FREDI (Italy)
Jean-Claude THOURET (France)

Volcanic processes are inherently complex and diverse resulting in large variations in landforms, deposits and severe effects on the surrounding environment. Volcanic hazardous phenomena can play an important role in human communities on a daily basis and can alter social evolution. Volcanic activity is also considered to be a significant factor in climate change both locally and globally. The multi-disciplinary approach to understand volcanic landforms, processes and related hazards and risks provides a good basis for the special session on Volcano Geomorphology to be organized during the upcoming 9thIAG conference to be held in New Delhi, India in November 2017.

We kindly call the attention of the geomorphologist community in order to bring together all colleagues interested in volcanic landforms, deposits, in volcanic sedimentary processes from source to sink together with geomorphologists and social scientists working on volcanic hazards and impacts on the environment and society. The objective of the session “Volcano geomorphology: from volcano science to societal response” is to capture the diversity of researches relevant to volcano geomorphology and society living on or around volcanoes:
- Classical studies in geomorphology such as morphometry, morphological evolution and geochronology of volcanic edifices,and dependency between volcanic edifices and tectonics;
- The use of quantitative techniques (DEM analysis, remote sensing, experimental approach, statistical analysis, and dating methods) to measure and date volcanic landforms and assess timescales of volcano growth and degradation;
- Stratigraphy, sedimentology, geochronology, physical volcanology and geochemistry of erupted and post-eruptive deposits as tools for reconstructing the geomorphological evolution of volcanic areas and edifices;
- Erosion and aggradation processes in catchments disturbed by volcanic eruptions;
- The use of traditional and modern techniques for assessing and delineating all volcanic and associated hazards, including numerical modeling of volcanic processes and probabilistic models for future eruption activity;
- The use of modern geomorphic techniques for risk analysis and risk assessment in densely populated areas around active volcanoes.
We welcome all novel approaches on volcano geomorphology and assessment of societal response to volcano crisis. We look forward to meeting you in New Delhi, 2017
S6 Karst Geomorphology
Chairs: Francisco GUTIERREZ (Spain)
Paul WILLIAMS (New Zealand)
The geomorphology and hydrology of karst terrains, both at the surface and in the subsurface are governed by dissolution of carbonate and/or evaporite rocks. Karst occurs over 20% of the Earth’s ice-free continental area. The analysis of the distinctive features, records and environmental problems associated with these areas typically require the application of specific concepts and approaches. Recently, karst research has experienced a significant growth, largely due to the development of new technologies, the interest on paleoenvironmental reconstructions and hypogene systems, and the increasing impact of environmental problems (hazards and impacts). Contributions dealing with any karst-related topic are welcome to this session, especially those addressing geomorphological issues. The chairpersons will arrange the publication of a selection of papers in a special issue of an international journal (e.g. Geomorphology).
S7 Anthropocene Geomorphology
Chairs: Antonio CENDRERO (Spain)
Denes LOCZY (Hungary)
The aim of the session will be to examine existing data and assess whether geomorphic processes during the Anthropocene show changes that could justify its definition as a new geologic epoch. A series of issues emerge. Is the later part of Marine Isotope Stage 1 (MIS 1; the present interglacial) significantly different from the earlier part? And this interglacial from former ones? Is there a global geomorphic change represented by human-driven quantitative or qualitative modifications of geomorphic processes? If so, since when? Will they leave an imprint in the geological record? What kind of lower boundary can be set for the Anthropocene and what diagnostic criteria on the level of human impact on geomorphic systems could be used? How would this relate to the procedure normally applied by the International Commission on Stratigraphy for the definition of chronostratigraphic and geochronologic units? Do sediment fluxes and rates of geomorphic evolution change in the Anthropocene? What kind of feedback mechanisms intensify or weaken interactions between social and environmental change and geomorphic evolution at a global level? How can we separate human from natural signals in the evolution of landscapes? Is the hypothetical Holocene/Anthropocene transition globally synchronous? Which are the relevant timescales for study? What are the regional and local impacts of global geomorphic change? How could possible negative impacts be mitigated? Which is the place for geomorphological heritage in Anthropocene earth systems?
S8 Geomorphological Outreach
Chairs: Mary-Louise BYRNE (Canada)
Veena JOSHI (India)

Nothing thrills an onlooker more than a fascinating landscape, be it the Grand Canyon, the Great badlands of North and South Dakota, Niagara Falls or the Great Barrier Reefs, The Uluru or the Great Escarpment of India, ‘the Western Ghats’ or the White Cliffs of Dover or Victoria Falls or Sugar loaf, to name a few. The ordinary people have long been fascinated by geomorphology and connected to them through the art of photography, film, landscape poetry and travelogues. If we glance at the records of tourists and visitors in all the countries of the world, we can clearly see that a large number of them choose to visit the spectacular geomorphic landscapes. The question is whether this attraction to the landscape is being taped to gain interest in geomorphology as a discipline among the general public and the potential students of today or not. Due to the intensive focus on the understanding of the ‘processes’ regarding landform evolution, perhaps lesser emphasis has been paid on the proper description of these remarkable features, that did not help bridge the gap between the Geomorphologist and the general public.

A great need has awaken today to increase public understanding of geomorphology to stimulate discussion about geomorphology and its implications for society and to inspire and enthuse people of all ages about the science of geomorphology. The activities could be anything that educates society about geomorphology and inspire a new generation of geomorphologists.

This session of “Geomorphological Outreach” has been organised during this conference to promote the Geomorphologists from across the globe to be instrumental in improving the public understanding of Geomorphology and its relevance to society by raising awareness of the importance of Geomorphology, hence focus will be on applied research towards practitioners’ needs. The framework of application, though not restricted to, can be put under ‘landform mapping using aerial photos, satellite images and field investigations to identify hazardous sites, field monitoring of such sensitive areas, identifying causes and effects and devising management solutions to such geomorphic problems’. Through this session we intend to promote an understanding to the general public about the contribution of Geomorphology in addressing the relevant global issues, be it the effect of changing global climate or the accelerated soil erosion and land degradation due to human activities or slope instability or the effect of mining and ground collapse or shoreline retreat and host of issues that concern the welfare of the society.

S9 Bio-geomorphology
Chairs: Heather VILES (UK)
Hari Shanker SHARMA (India)
Biogeomorphology is a rapidly developing area of geomorphology, which focuses on the evolving, two-way interrelationship between the living world (plants, animals and microbes) and geomorphic processes and landforms. Amongst many other topics, for example, biogeomorphological studies have recently been made on wave/ plant dynamics on coastal salt marsh surfaces, the influence of microbiological communities on weathering in glacial environments, and the interrelationships between foraging invertebrates and sediment movements in arid and semi-arid environments. Technological developments are now making it easier to study the many complex interactions between life and geomorphology. In this session, we welcome submissions on any biogeomorphological topic, at any temporal and spatial scale, based on laboratory, field and/or modelling approaches.
S10 Weathering, Soils and Regolith on different time scales
Chairs: Clifford OLLIER (Australia)
Hema ACHYUTHAN (India)
Weathering, soil formation and regolith study comprise an interdisciplinary topic in geomorphology integrating past and present soil formation processes, climate, geochemistry, biology and modeling. Buried and fossil soils are used as indicators of the past climate of all geological periods and epochs. This session is designed for the presentation of new findings and ideas on these topics, with an emphasis on the time factor. Possible topics include: (1) Paleosol profile concepts and horizonation, (2) Paleosol stratigraphy and genesis, (3) Paleosol geomorphology and dating techniques, (4) Paleopedology and landscape evolution, (5) The rate of soil formation, (6) ferricretes, calcretes and bauxites, (7) Soil surveys and archaeological soils, (8) Soil process modeling and application to climate change. (9) Social aspects of regolith research. We especially welcome novel approaches to understanding weathering, soils and regolith. Presentations may be published as a special issue in JQI/JGSI/Catena /Geoderma depending on papers submitted. We look forward to meeting you in New Delhi, 2017.
S11 Hillslope Processes and Mass Movements
Chairs: Michael CROZIER (New Zealand)
Sunil Kumar DE (India)

While landslides represent an important factor in the evolution of the earth’s surface, their intensity can often pose a significant hazard for mankind. The frequency and magnitude of landslide occurrence has increased significantly because of human intervention. Despite the large number of published studies since the latter half of the 20th century, landslides continue to present a serious threat to life and livelihood in many parts of the world.

The landslide session in the 9th ICG, Delhi will therefore concentrate on the latest approaches to mitigating the impact of landslide events. Abstracts are invited on such topics as the latest techniques of landslide control, landslide hazard and risk zonation, and the role of human intervention in landslide occurrence, as well as case studies from different parts of the world. The selected papers will be published in an appropriate journal.

S12 Palaeohydrology and Fluvial Archives - hydrological extreme and critical events (HEX)
Chairs: Jürgen HERGET(Germany)
Alessandro FONTANA (Italy)
Stéphane CORDIER(France)
Martin STOKES (UK)

Palaeohydrology addresses all components of the water cycle (rivers, lakes, groundwater, etc), although in practice most of the previous research has been focused on river channels and discharges, especially geomorphological and stratigraphic indicators. Fluvial archives and landforms like river terraces, alluvial fans, or stacked fluvial sediments and lacustrine successions provide information of previous environmental conditions, including specific events and episodes. A hydrological event is defined as having a magnitude higher (flood) or lower (drought) than a critical threshold, including extreme events of significantly differing magnitudes. Events may be unique or clustered in time and can significantly mark the landscape. Eventually, a succession of extreme events may lead to alluvial terrace formation in addition to the traces of a distinct event itself, which can be well illustrated by outburst floods. In the session, a multi-disciplinary approach will be applied by bringing together scientists from different disciplines for idea exchanges about:

Extreme hydrological events, addressing the spatial and temporal patterns of extremes in different world regions using multidisciplinary perspectives.
Collation and presentation of results from research on palaeohydrology and fluvial archives that are relevant for understanding and managing global environmental change.
Human perception and response. For Holocene and historical events, consequences such as abandonment or shifting of settlements are important to assess the impact of floods or droughts and their magnitude and duration.
New methods and techniques for palaeohydrological reconstruction and Quaternary river evolution, such as remote sensing, geochronology, modelling, numerical simulation, geochemical and isotopic analysis, which are constantly developed and further improved.
S13 Fluvial processes and landforms
Chairs: Dulal Chandra GOSWAMI (India)
Nicola SURIAN (Italy)

Fluvial geomorphology has significantly changed over the last 10-15 years. This session will be an opportunity to analyze how the discipline has evolved over the recent past and which are likely to be the key research topics in the coming years. We encourage contributions addressing a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, using different approaches, and covering all types of rivers (i.e. from mountain streams to lowland rivers) or environments. Sediment dynamics and sediment transport estimation, bank erosion, channel morpho-dynamics, channel adjustment and evolutionary trajectory, floodplain and terrace formation, catchment processes and evolution, network dynamics, impact of climate change on fluvial processes and landforms, fluvial audit, fluvial information system are some examples of possible topics. As for approaches, we expect that contributions will give a broad view of the multiple tools used in fluvial geomorphology (e.g. from field observation and measurements to numerical modelling) and, specifically, those tools that are changing our way of investigating fluvial forms and processes (e.g. remote sensing, tracers, dating methods).

our way of investigating fluvial forms and processes (e.g. remote sensing, tracers, dating methods). Finally, it could be worthwhile if contributions put some emphasis on practical implications of research, showing links between geomorphology and society (see the general theme of the conference). Fluvial geomorphology has strong relevance in areas like management of natural resources, mitigation of risks and conservation of natural systems. The geomorphological community should be aware of this utilitarian aspect of the discipline; and while, it is fundamental that this be recognized by the society.

S14 Large Rivers
Chairs: Avijit GUPTA (Australia)
Large rivers are huge conduits for transferring water and sediment to the oceans. A proper definition is elusive but they have four essential properties: size of the drainage basins, length of the main river, magnitude of water discharge, and volume of sediment transported. Not all the properties are always achieved. Although only 25 large rivers transfer about a third of the sediment of the world, our knowledge of them is limited. This is in spite of their fascinating fluvial geomorphology and our attempts to manage such huge conduits. A greater number of studies on large rivers are required to comprehend the nature of global erosion and sedimentation, and also discharges of water and sediment to coastal waters, patterns which may shift owing to the on-going climate change.
S15 Integrated River Management
Chairs: Massimo RINALDI (Italy)

Management of river systems needs to account for a number of increasing Global problems, including climate changes and increasing risk related to flash floods, and human pressures and exploitation of river resources that induce deterioration of riverine habitats and a reduction in biodiversity. In European countries, EU Directives concerned with ‘Water’ and ‘Floods’ have provided a legislative background emphasising the need for integrated approaches that can lead to effective and sustainable river management. Fluvial geomorphology provides an essential contribution to many specific issues in river engineering and planning, and, more broadly, in promoting policies for sustainable river environment management. It ensures that ‘process-based’ approaches are embedded into developing understanding and quantifying the functioning of river systems to provide the underpinning for developing strategies and approaches to the sustainable management of river systems.

The aim of this session is to evaluate current research knowledge of fluvial processes that has direct or indirect relevance to river management. In particular, the session aims to focus on the development or application of novel methodologies and on scientific results that can contribute to more integrated river management, including those that incorporate elements from other disciplines, such as ecology, hydrology and hydraulics, and those that address multi-scale linkages. For example, potential topics could include, but are not limited to: assessment of hydromorphological conditions, trajectories of change, sensitivity of river systems and morphological potential for the identification of restoration actions, management of sediment transport, bank erosion and other fluvial processes, application of the erodible corridor concept, sediment management, ecosystem services, environmental flows, links and feedbacks between geomorphological and ecological conditions.

S16 Coastal Geomorphology and Management
Chairs: N. CHANDRASEKAR (India)
Giuseppe MASTRONUZZI (Italy)
The coast is one of the most dynamic parts of the earth surface. About 23% of the world’s population lives within 100 km of the coast and about 10% of the population live in extremely low lying areas. The coast has most sensitive ecosystems like Mangroves, wetlands, coral reefs, dunes and beaches. Coastal areas play important functions like regulation of water exchange between land and sea, regulation of the chemical composition of sediments and water, storage and recycling of nutrients and human waters, maintenance of biological and genetic diversity, producing space for agriculture, transportation and navigation and providing means of recreation and Tourism. Thereby the coastal landscapes are very dynamic both spatially and temporally. Human interventional to a balanced morphological system have accelerated the changes of the landscape and turned the coastal area into a fragile environment. Coastal geomorphology has undergone rapid and varied changes in response to water level changes including passive inundation, beach ridge formation, barrier lagoon development and coastal erosion. It is time to explore the coastal geomorphological features and to quantify the volumetric changes. We have lot of issues with reference to coastline in various parts of the world. The issues of coastline reflect a delicate balance between erosion and deposition. A coastline responds rapidly to environmental change and is natural for coastlines to change over human time scales of years to decades. The factors controlling coastal morphology such as sea level change, lithology, waves, tides, storms, vegetation etc., are to be focused to assess the coastal areas from different perspectives. There has been a rapid change in the instrumentation available for measuring fluid motion and sediment transport as well as measuring morphological change and this has permitted a focus on studies of morphodynamics. The impact of climate change on coastal vegetation and dune migration are still unclear. Sedimentary coastal landscapes are relatively unstable. Now several arguments to illustrate some of the problems facing planners and engineers i.e. should we manage the coast? The several parts of the coastline in the world are suffering coastal erosion. The coast of erosion is high as farmed land is lost and properly damaged. Now we require a holistic look and approach on coastal geomorphological changes due to several factors and also decisions over coastal management are rarely clear-cut.
S17 Arid and Semi-arid Geomorphology
Chairs: Andrew GOUDIE (UK)
Amal KAR (India)
In recent years there have been many major developments in the study of the geomorphology of drylands. Among these are the dating of dunes and other landforms with optically stimulated luminescence, detailed environmental reconstruction through the study of lake and other cores, the use of remote sensing to map and monitor dust storms, the study of Martian and other planetary landscapes, the use of geomorphology to study hazards (such as salt weathering and landsliding), the appreciation of the importance of biogeomorphological processes, and recognition of the increasing role of humans in transforming landforms and processes. The concept behind this session is to provide a forum for the discussion of the results of new technologies and approaches.
S18 Tropical Geomorphology
Chairs: David HIGGITT (China)
Srikumar CHATTOPADHYAY (India)

The session on Tropical Geomorphology focuses on the role that geomorphologists can play in establishing the sensitivity of low latitude geomorphic systems to environmental change and human impact. Geomorphology is fundamentally concerned with process analysis, material study and areal differentiations. It can contribute to the recognition of environmental hazards, such as landslides, assessing environmental impacts, the management of extractive industries and to the formulation of sustainable resource management including precision management. As many regions within the Tropics are undergoing rapid development with intense and competing resource use, widespread land cover transformation, urbanization and intervention in surface processes particularly fluvial systems, the geomorphological principles/ percepts need to be applied in interdisciplinary settings, to provide insights to other disciplines and help prioritizing the most significant problems relevant to meet aspirations of the local communities. The potential of geomorphology as component of earth system sciences should be properly explored in the context of emerging sustainability science which strives to integrate natural science and society. Papers are invited on all aspects of tropical geomorphology with particular emphasis on:

Applied tropical geomorphology for hazard mitigation and sustainable resource use
Properties of tropical soils and saprolites and the spatial relationships of forms and materials
Characterization of tropical rivers, lakes and wetlands and the interactions between ecology and flow dynamics
Sensitivity of sediment, carbon and nutrient dynamics to landuse and climate change
Human-induced landscape change in tropics and modification of surface processes
Developments in interpreting Quaternary environmental change and long term denudation rates in low latitudes
Development and application of innovative dating and measurement techniques applied to geomorphological processes
The geomorphological significance of biogeochemical processes in tropical rainforest and savannah ecosystems
The role of deep weathering in earth surface systems – the sequential development of weathering profiles and erosional landforms.

S19 Glacial and Periglacial Geomorphology
Chairs: Carlo BARONI (Italy)
Milap Chand SHARMA (India)

Glacial and periglacial landforms are relevant features concerned with environmental evolution in regions under cold climates. Landscape analysis furnishes a key tool for identifying and understanding the impact of climatic changes in glacial and periglacial environments, very sensitive to past climatic changes and to on-going global change. Glacial and periglacial landforms act as proxies for reconstructing the glacial and periglacial response to a changing world. Polar and sub-polar regions and mountain areas at different latitudes represent key areas for detecting the signature of glacial and periglacial history. A more accurate knowledge of the precise age of major events related to past glacial changes and to ice-volume variations is required for better understanding the impact of climate change acting at present or expected for the future and for modelling global sea-level variation.

At present, polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers cover almost 10% of the Earth's surface, accounting for a major share of fresh water. Antarctica and Greenland glacial systems extend over 96% of world’s total glacierized area and play a key role in regulating the Earth’s climate, ocean circulation and global sea level. Hindu Kush-Karakoram-Himalayan region known as the "Third Pole" of the Earth, together with other mountain regions, represent the water towers feeding many perennial rivers, which support more then 2 billion people on the Planet.

Periglacial processes also influence global hydrology, ecosystems, and soil carbon storage. Climatic and environmental changes in glacial and periglacial regions cause adaptation through ecological and evolutionary responses by organisms. Glacier- related hazards reinforce the need of creditable research on the impact of glaciers and deglaciation on the society. Present ice cover is just about 1/3 of the Last Glacial Maximum, the last of many Late Cenozoic glacial cycles, when large portions of the Earth were widely covered by huge ice sheets and ice fields. It is already established that Polar Regions, the Himalayas, and other mountain regions also underwent many glacial and inter-glacial cycles. However, the timing and extent of glaciations seems to have varied both in space and time. A comprehensive correlation of timings and style of glaciation at regional and global scale is still necessary.

Therefore, a proper understanding of the climate and glacier dynamics is essential for the future development plans within a holistic framework.

The conference would cover the following Themes: Glacial Dynamics and Mass Balance, Glacial history and past climatic changes, Glacial Hydrology, Geospatial Analysis of Glaciers, Periglacial & Paraglacial Processes, Glacial Lakes & Outburst Floods, Glaciers & Climate, Glaciers and Society.

S20 Mountain Geomorphology
Chairs: Emmanuel REYNARD (Switzerland)
Devi Dutt CHAUNIYAL (India)

Because of high slope gradients, high elevation, scarce vegetation cover, and sensitivity to climate change, mountain areas are very sensitive to active geomorphological processes. In some mountain areas anthropic pressure increases geomorphic sensitivity and creates situations of risks (floods, landslides, debris flows, avalanches, etc.). But at the same time, mountain communities have developed capacities to adapt to geomorphological hazards (terraces, dams, etc.).

The session will address all aspects of geomorphological processes in mountain areas, in particular in relation with society. Submissions on the following topics area particularly welcome: - Geomorphic processes in relation to Mountain problems
- Geo-hydrological problems of mountains
- Geomorphological hazards in mountains, in particular cloud bursts and their affects, glacial lake bursts and their affects, landslides and rehabilitation problems
- Human adaptations to geomorphic processes in mountain areas

S21 Application of Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) in Geomorphology
Chairs: Takashi OGUCHI (Japan)
Cees J. VAN WESTEN (Netherlands)
Within the long history of Geomorphology, applications of Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are relatively new. However, their development has been very fast during the last 20 years, and they have become indispensable tools in Geomorphology. Latest advances, such as the significantly increased availability of high-resolution datasets and open source software, are further facilitating this field. This session deals with various aspects of RS/GIS applications in Geomorphology including 1) methods to acquire, store, visualize, and analyze spatial data particularly Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), 2) case studies in various areas of the world with diverse environmental conditions, and 3) their implications for both scientific and practical viewpoints of Geomorphology such as environmental problems and hazard mitigation. We welcome contributions from colleagues who use RS and GIS to solve geomorphological issues.
S22 Quantitative Geomorphology and Modeling
Chairs: Jon FRENCH (UK)
Subir SARKAR (India)
Gerald NANSON (Australia)
Geomorphology underwent a paradigm shift from a largely descriptive to a highly quantitative science after the mid-20th century, at which time estimation of geomorphic and hydrologic parameters provided a new basis for understanding landform development. Early empirical efforts have since given way to more mechanistic approaches, and modelling has become increasingly prominent as the primary means of articulating and predicting landform and landscape dynamics. Modelling has an important explanatory function, to help us understand complex and often highly non-linear interactions that drive change in sediment and landform systems. Models are thus vital to allow us to understand the legacy of the Holocene, including the pervasive influence of human agency within the ‘Anthropocene’. At the same time, model-based geomorphological science must rise to the challenge of predicting landform dynamics at timescales relevant to the management of climate change and its effects on landform systems. This requires new approaches to bridge the gap between reductionist process models and more abstract landscape evolution models to achieve robust quantitative prediction of landform morphological change and its implications for geohazards such as landslides, erosion, and flooding. We invite contributions across the full range of quantitative and model-based geomorphology. Contributions that focus on the practical implications of model-based geomorphological science, and the links between quantitative geomorphic system modeling and society are also welcome.
S23 Geomorphological Mapping
Chairs: Mike SMITH (UK)
Paolo PARON (Italy)

Geomorphological Mapping provides base data on landforms, their materials and the morphogenetic processes shaping the land that can be used per se or as an input in a variety of other fields and disciplines such as soil mapping, land use and land planning, infrastructure design, hydrological studies, and ecology amongst others.

Over the last decade enormous advancements have been made in the field of digital geomorphological mapping, particularly a result of technological developments in the fields of object based image analysis (OBIA), low altitude aerial photography (e.g. kites, balloons and UAVs), and advancements in the use of Structure-from-Motion (SfM) algorithms and software. In parallel the release of greater quantities of public domain and open access remotely sensed data by a number of space agencies, in the form of digital elevation models or multispectral imagery, has allowed advancements in the monitoring and mapping of the Earth’s surface landforms and their properties. This session continues the contribution to the IAG provided by Smith et al (2011) and therefore welcomes contributions highlighting advancements in both digital geomorphological mapping, as well as field based mapping methods and techniques, for both ‘pure geomorphological’ studies and applied multidisciplinary uses. We welcome both methodological studies and case studies, from both developed and developing nations. We particularly encourage the presentation of strong comparative studies where the use of digital techniques are tested against traditional ones or where different digital techniques are compared to outline best practice.

S24 Geomorphology and Allied Disciplines: Mutual Contributions for the Progress of Integrated Environmental and Disaster Studies
Chairs: Mauro SOLDATI (Italy)
Irasema ALCANTARA AYALA (Mexico)

Exploitation of resources, environmental degradation, disaster risk and climate change are some of the major challenges the humanity has to manage. Effects derived from environmental impacts on both the human and the biophysical spheres, including biodiversity and geodiversity, are evident. Soil degradation, modification to catchment dynamics, landslides, glacial retreat, coastal erosion, increasing sea level rise, droughts etc. are among some the most significant issues to be considered. According to NASA for example, forty-six gigatons of ice from Alaskan glaciers has been lost on average each year from 2003 to 2010. Likewise, during the last decade (2005-2014) the impact of disasters world-wide involved more than 700,000 human casualties, over 1.4 million injured people, 23 million displaced populace and economic losses of circa $1.3 trillion (UNISDR).

Environmental and disaster impacts in the world have increased dramatically in the last decades. Their complexity and significance urges the need of integrated research. As geomorphology is essential for the understanding of the origin, evolution and particularly the dynamics of the Earth, its role as a core discipline in integrated environmental and disaster studies is fundamental. With this in mind, we welcome contributions from geomorphologists and scientists from allied disciplines (engineering, geology, geophysics, biology, ecology, archaeology, anthropology, psychology, sociology, economics etc.) dealing with environmental impact and risk issues in an integrated manner. This special session also intends to document how crucial and central geomorphology can be in integrated environmental and disaster risk studies, including a wide range of topics ranging from hazard and risk assessment to the protection and enhancement of geoheritage.

S25 Future Earth: Research for Global Sustainability
Chairs: Dan BALTEANU (Romania)

Rooted in previous global environmental change core initiatives, the International Programme “Future Earth – Research for Global Sustainability” has emerged as a new global platform for stronger integrated research dedicated to support and provide timely solutions to current and future societal challenges. With a transdisciplinary character, Future Earth works across disciplines, aiming to develop sound collaborative actions for co-producing knowledge that will enable and accelerate transitions to global sustainable development.

The scope of the session is to explore geomorphological responses to and feedbacks of climate change, as well as natural and human-induced impacts across various environments and different societal contexts. Connections between the natural and social sciences will be emphasized. Within this context, presentations are welcome on (but not restricted to) the following suggested themes: 1. linking geomorphological research with societal needs; 2. modelling of climate change scenarios and their geomorphic responses; 3. integration of geomorphology into the Future Earth “Knowledge – Action Networks” (KANs) initiative.

Studies dealing with the methodological complexities of multi-scale issues in geomorphological risks and their implications for society are also welcome. Likewise, presentations illustrating examples, lessons and good practice from national/international projects jointly developed between academia and societal partners are particularly encouraged, where these are providing scientific services to underpin policies and strategies for the sustainable management of different types of geomorphic terrain.

The session will try to identify future research directions in Geomorphology connected to the Future Earth theme, “Dynamic Planet”. In this regard, a special focus will be on broad integrated approaches seeking to design alternative responses to societal needs.

S26 Connectivity in Geomorphology
Chairs: Ronald POEPPL (Austria)
Saskia KEESSTRA (Netherlands)

“Connectivity thinking” and related concepts have a long history in geomorphology. However, especially since the beginning of the 21st century, connectivity has emerged as a conceptual framework for understanding the transfer of surface water and sediment through landscapes and to explain geomorphic change. Moreover, most recent approaches also use connectivity theory to link social and geomorphic systems to better understand geomorphic change in coupled human-landscape systems.

This session invites contributions from all areas of geomorphology illustrating or identifying the role of connectivity in their research. Specific themes we would like to especially promote are:

- advancement of connectivity theory
- method development (e.g. measurement/experiments in field and laboratory settings, modelling, indices) incl. case studies from different geographic environments and/or dealing with connectivity on different spatial and temporal scales
- determining how connectivity concepts and approaches can be used to enable sustainable land and water management.
We hope to use the session to develop a debate on how (if at all) connectivity theory and related approaches can bring us forward to better understand the complexity of geomorphic change under different and changing environmental conditions.

S27 Sediment Budgets (IAG-WG SEDIBUD)
Chairs: Achim BEYLICH (Norway)
Franck LAVIGNE (France)
Climate change, human activities and other perturbations are likely to influence existing patterns of weathering, erosion, transport and deposition of material (e.g., sediments, solutes, nutrients, carbon, wood) across defined landscape components and units. While it is still a great challenge to develop an improved understanding of how such changes interact and affect slope and fluvial denudation rates, source-to-sink fluxes and sedimentary budgets, such quantitative analyses promise to be an efficient framework to assess the impact of environmental changes and disturbances to sediment dynamics and to evaluate landscape sensitivity. The current knowledge on sediment dynamics and the sediment cascade within Holocene to contemporary climates forms the basis for predicting the consequences of ongoing and future climate change. However, much of our information is still limited in terms of spatial and temporal coverage and needs to be extended and consolidated. Denudation includes both chemical and mechanical processes and its spatiotemporal variability is controlled by a wide range of meteorological and environmental drivers. Only after coordinated research efforts and integration of regional datasets it is advisable to apply and test, with an acceptable degree of reliability, models of landscape response to climate change, anthropogenic impacts and other perturbations like, e.g., fires or earthquakes. This Session on Sediment Budgets shall include contributions on hillslope and fluvial denudation, source-to-sink fluxes/correlations and sedimentary budgets from small headwater systems to continental scales, and from long-term to contemporary timescales. Paper and poster presentations showing work from all different climatic environments are welcome. A wide range of different techniques and methods of data collection and generation, e.g., from field-based to remotely sensed, and analysis / modeling is invited.
S28 Tropical Rivers (IAG-WG)
Chairs: Edgardo LATRUBESSE (USA)
Jose C. STEVAUX (Brazil)
Rajiv SINHA (India)
The overall scope of the session organized by the Tropical Rivers -Geomorphology, Impacts, Hazards and Management working group is to discuss the state of the art of morphodynamic processes in tropical rivers and to provide an integrated assessment of long-term direct impacts of climate variability and human-induced change and management of tropical rivers basins by identification, quantification and modeling of key hydro-geomorphologic indicators during the past and present times. The potential impacts of global change on fluvial systems and of their socio-economic implications and flood hazards are also considered. Several of the largest and many of the most vulnerable rivers of the world are located in the equatorial and monsoonal region as well as some of the most active areas of fluvial sedimentation and erosion of the planet. We welcome in this session contributions on the Quaternary history, morphodynamics, hydro-geomorphology, hazards and management of tropical rivers.
S29 Geomorphology of Rocky coasts (IAG-WG)
Chairs: David M. KENNEDY (Australia)
Wayne STEPHENSON (New Zealand)

Rocky coasts are no longer the neglected geomorphic systems they were described as a decade ago. Thanks to advances in quantitative science geomorphologists now have a better understanding of hydrodynamic processes on shore platforms, energy transfers into cliffs from the marine zone and processes of rock surface weathering. This research is complemented and supported by innovations in aerial data collection from UAV’s to satellites. Many fundamental questions, however, remain unsolved especially related to the evolution, dynamics and future evolutionary trajectory of rocky shorelines. This knowledge gap is partly derived from the differing scale of studies, from the microscopic to continental scale, undertaken in these geomorphic settings.

This session aims to bring together all researchers on rocky coasts to explore the dynamics of these landforms from a range of perspectives and techniques. The session aims to bridge disciplinary and methodological boundaries in order to provide a more in depth understanding on how rocky shores behave both today and into the future. We also encourage examination of new sites unexplored by researchers in order to gain an understanding of the full range of shore platforms and sea cliffs that exist on Earth.

S30 Submarine Geomorphology (IAG-WG)
Chairs: Aaron MICALLEF (Malta)
Sebastian KRASTEL (Germany)
Alessandra SAVINI (Italy)

The shape of the seafloor and sub-seafloor stratigraphic horizons preserve a wealth of information that reflects the time-integrated effects of tectonic, sedimentary, oceanographic and volcanic processes. Many such processes are hazards to coastal populations and offshore installations, and they constitute key objectives of national research programmes and IODP expeditions. High quality bathymetry, especially when combined with sub-seafloor and/or seabed measurements, provides an exciting opportunity to integrate the approaches of geomorphology and geophysics and to extend quantitative geomorphology offshore.

This session aims to examine the causes and consequences of geomorphic and tectonic processes shaping underwater landscapes, including submarine erosion and depositional processes, submarine landslides, sediment transfer and deformation, volcanic activity, fluid migration and escape, faulting and folding.

The general goal of the session is to bring together researchers who characterise the shape of past and present seafloor features, seek to understand the sub-surface and surface processes at work and their impacts, or use bathymetry and/or 3D seismic data as a model input. Contributions to this session can include work from any depth or physiographic region, e.g. oceanic plateaus, abyssal hills, mid-ocean ridges, accretionary wedges, and continental margins (from abyss plains to continental shelves). Datasets of any scale, from satellite-predicted depth to ultra high-resolution swath bathymetry, sub-surface imaging and sampling are anticipated.

S31 Landform Assessment for Geodiversity: General Geomorphology, Geodiversity, Geoconservation (IAG-WG)
Chairs: Zbigniew ZWOLIŃSKI (Poland)
Marco GIARDINO (Italy)

A broad spectrum of issues relating to the diversity of ancient and modern morphogenetic processes and landforms created by these processes is covered by this session proposed by the IAG/AIG WG on “Landform Assessment for Geodiversity”. Its aims are: to find, to describe, to analyze and to interpret typical, classical areas of varying morphology, morphogenesis and morphochronology. These can enhance: the assessment of past and present landforms, the recognition of geodiversity hotspots at various spatial scales, the awareness on the importance of the geomorphological parts of geoecosystems, either for theoretical or practical reasons.

Even an apparently simple geomorphological landscape can show its great complexity expressed by polygenesis during different periods of formation. Assessment methods for complex geomorphological landscapes are varied, but a comprehensive approach to their diversity should also serve as a basis for comparative studies of different types of landforms and morphoclimatic zones of the world. Comparative studies are guideposts for a landforms hierarchy on the Earth's surface, as well as to build ontologies for geomorphological mapping, useful for proper land use and planning.

We invite presenters from all over the world to participate in the session and to present various examples of complex types of landforms from the local case study to the vast geomorphological regions, from a single landform to entire continents. Varied spatial and temporal scales for the description and evaluation of landforms are extremely useful when assessing their geodiversity.

In turn, the assessment methods of landforms for geodiversity are useful in identifying those areas that have exceptional and unique qualities, which are worthy of protection and preservation in the form of national or landscape parks or geoparks. Relationships between landform geodiversity and local cultures are a tool for understanding peculiar attitudes towards natural phenomena, useful for improving nature conservation and resilience of our society.

S32 Planetary Geomorphology (IAG-WG)
Chairs: Victor R. BAKER (USA)
Susan CONWAY (France)
Unprecedented high spatial, temporal and spectral resolution data from planetary, lunar, asteroidal and cometary surfaces in our solar system are being returned by satellites, landers and rovers. These data allow the identification of a range of active and relict geomorphic processes that include impact cratering, aeolian, fluvial, lacustrine, deltaic, volcanic, tectonic, mass wasting, rock breakdown, glacial, periglacial, and coastal. While the landforms appear similar to those on Earth, there are issues of equifinality in addition to important differences in denudation rates, landform scale and indeed the balance of geomorphic processes. In addition to experimental and modelling studies, Earth field analogues are often used to better understand geomorphic processes on other planets. Stronger collaboration between the terrestrial geomorphology and planetary science communities is needed in order to enrich both disciplines. The aim of this session is to stimulate cross-community discussion of ideas and theories that will improve our understanding of geomorphic processes in the widest sense and therefore to better formulate links between process and form on planetary surfaces.
S33 Tectonic Geomorphology (IAG-EGU Joint Session)
Chairs: Peter van der BEEK (France)
Monique FORT (France)
Marta DELLA SETA (Italy)

Understanding the mechanisms that drive interactions among Earth surface processes, tectonics and climate, as well as their possible mutual feedbacks, has been a long-lasting focus of tectonic geomorphology, which in the past few decades experienced a rapid evolution thanks to new tools and perspectives (e.g., high-resolution DEMs, geodesy, chronological techniques, analytical algorithms, numerical modeling, and quantitative stratigraphy). This evolution, founded on robust analyses and multi-disciplinary approaches, has renewed open questions and has promoted new research topics in the field of tectonically active landscape dynamics.

The IAG Tectonic Geomorphology Working Group and the EGU Geomorphology Division co-organized this session to present and promote multi-disciplinary and innovative research aimed at defining the effects of active tectonics on landscapes and reconstructing the tectonic record through interpreting deformed landscapes. Priority will be given to advanced and original work including: process-based geomorphic studies providing insights into the physical phenomena that drive erosion/deposition dynamics in source-to-sink scenarios; stratigraphic research constraining past climatic and tectonic finger prints on the landscape; advances in chronologic techniques and approaches for the successful definition of rates of tectonic and geomorphic processes at different space-time scales; geomorphic, morphometric, paleoseismological and geodetic tools to detect active and seismogenic structures and constrain their growth and development; numerical landscape evolution modeling; modeling of the effects of morpho-evolutionary rates on mass-rock rheology and development of slope-scale mass-rock failures in tectonically active landscapes.

We welcome all contributions focusing on specific case studies, making clear links between detailed field observations and different innovative approaches and techniques.

S33a Tectonic Geomorphology of Kachchh Basin
Chairs: M. G. THAKKAR (India)
Nilesh BHATT (India)
The landscape of Kachchh renders active tectonics and moderate climatic events and shaped it with peculiar features in Western India. Paleo-rift, passive margin basin of Kachchh generates unique geomorphic features which can reveal climate and tectonic processes separately or together. The rocky highlands are uplifted rift blocks as horsts along the major faults, while the vast plains and Ranns – flat salt playas are subsided blocks as grabens during the basin inversion. As the blocks uplifted in Tertiary, the graben like basins also formed in the same time. Further the Kachchh is seismically active region hence renders best ground for the study of tectonic geomorphology and landscape evolution. The vast desolate, salty encrusted and featureless terrain of the great and little Ranns of Kachchh are active Quaternary depositional grounds where a historical earthquake in 1819 uplifted the flat landscape by few meters and tens of km in length generating a rejuvenated surface exposed for fresh gulley erosion. Similarly the rocky landmass at the foot hills along active faults generates flexures on Quaternary deposits like alluvial fans. The plains of Banni own the largest wetland in India. Kachchh coast line and coastal plains are distinguished by microgeomorpgic disparities; the western coast close to Indus delta has numerous creeks and mudflats with mangroves, while the middle part has longitudinal coastal dunes and beaches. The eastern segment of the coast again forms creeks and mudflats of the width and length in many kilometers. The geomorphic features like gorges, fault scarps, bedrock terraces along the Bedrock Rivers, alluvial fans, intra-montane valleys, questas etc. on uplifted rocky landmass are indicative of tectonically young terrain. Systematic studies have been carried out in last two decades on tectonic geomorphology and Quaternary geological processes however, quantitative and qualitative interpretation of the Kachchh landscape with geographic acumen needs to be undertaken. The Quaternary geologists have analyzed the landscape with focusing more on tectonics, but role of climate in overall rejuvenation of active landmass is lacking. Further, no systematic work on social geography, ethnic variation, climate and landscape effects on society evolution during civilization, the Indus valley civilization rise and fall in Kachchh whence a role of geomorphic and geologic processes is not yet studied with scientific testimony. The landscape utilized by the Stone Age man in Kachchh undoubtedly focus river landscape evolution in late Quaternary period, but no such work has been carried out till today in Kachchh. Such scientific gaps would have been looked into and a geomorphic realm with climatic and geologic processes needs to be addressed.
S34 Geoarchaeology (IAG-WG)
Chairs: Kosmas PAVLOPOULOS (UAE)
Morgan DE DAPPER (Belgium)

Geoarchaeology is defined as the geosciences and geographical methods and techniques applied to Prehistory, Archaeology, and History. Geoarchaeology in an open-minded way and from an interdisciplinary point of view. It is generally acknowledged that it is necessary to take the landscape and environmental dynamics into account to reconstitute a complete history of societies and to study the interaction between humans and their environment. Geomorphology plays an important role in the geoarchaeological approach, and has greatly benefitted from its collaboration with archaeology over the past decades.

This session aims to present new geoarchaeological surveys and new methods and techniques in different environments and tends to highlight the geomorphological processes with human occupation, climate variability impacts. It will also present the latest research findings on geoarchaeological approaches, giving evidence for paleogeographical changes, ecosystem and geomorphological changes that affected regional archaeology. The paleogeographical reconstruction and the visualization of the landscape evolution, using geo-informatics, will be one of the highlight of this session.

S35 Geomorphological Hazards and Risks (IAG-WG): risk mitigation trough new techniques under the challenges of environmental changes
Chairs: Bianca VIEIRA (Brazil)
Mihai MICU (Romania)
Geomorphic hazards occur all throughout the Earth’s geographical regions and they show an increasing incidence in response to the current and complex environmental and climate changes. As shown by the last generation of climate change scenarios, future changes in spatial distribution patterns and timing of slope and fluvial processes are expected to be significant in relation to the projected change in precipitation seasonality and extremes. The increasing anthropogenic impacts on environment are also expected to gain more spatial consistency, affecting the current land use/cover patterns, posing greater challenges for the management of geomorphic risks at local/regional/national levels. Besides its fundamental inquiries, the goal of geomorphic hazard studies should be as well strongly applied and guided towards the determination and the scientific substantiation of the present and future risk levels. In order to achieve this goal, complex morphologic, morphogenetic and morphodynamic studies should be performed as the basis for proper susceptibility and hazard studies. In this session, presentations addressing both processes and their associated consequences are highly welcomed, targeting studies on local and regional impacts of volcanic, glacial, pluvial, fluvial and gravitational processes with relevance for land degradation assessments and improvement of existing approaches for geomorphic hazard and risk analysis at different scales. The overall purpose of this session is to highlight, through representative case-studies, the importance of geomorphic hazards studies for risk mitigation, the latest scientific advancements in Geomorphology, including new techniques and methods, reduction of societal effects and increase of human communities’ resilience under the observed and projected climate and environmental change.
S36 Geomorphosites and Geotourism (IAG-WG)
Chairs: Paola CORATZA (Italy)
Vishwas S. KALE (India)
Fabien HOBLEA (France)

In the last decades, the ever growing consolidation of a new kind of tourism, more sensitive to environmental issues, has given rise to rapid expansion of the ‘Geotourism’, a niche of Nature tourism that has developed worldwide, in which the main objects are geosites and geomorphosites.

Thanks to their scenic value, geomorphosites are high tourist vocation areas. In some cases, geomorphological features have acquired a special status as symbol of a region or a country, and often have been used as subjects of logos, postcards, stamps or used in cinema or advertising industries. The iconic peaks of the Dolomites, the outstanding Monument Valley, the scenic landscape of Uluru, to name just a few great landscapes on Earth that have always attracted people's attention and have become tourist attraction in time. But geotourism is not only based on the attractiveness of such outstanding landforms. It is also and above all, based on innovative both experiential and interpretive products that reveal and explain the heritage values of the relief.

The geomorphological scientific community felt, during these years, the need to increase the visibility and sensitivity of geomorphology not only in the scientific world and institutions but also in society and to widespread awareness of geomorphology as a key factor of tourist attraction.

In this session we want to address these subjects, including current methods of research and debate on geoheritage and geotourism in international as well as national scientific worlds, from the global to the local scale. In particular we invite presentations and posters related to the following themes:
¬ theoretical and methodological presentations (definitions, approaches, context);
¬ presentations of methods (mapping, assessment, classification);
¬ case studies of geoheritage, geomorphosites, especially studies addressing a more sustainable land use;
¬ geoparks and geoheritage conservation, management and promotion,
¬ geotourism and educational aspects of geomorphosites.

S37 Danxia Geomorphology (IAG-WG)
Chairs: Peng HUA (China)
Piotr MIGON (Poland)
This session aims to bring together geomorphologists working on landforms and processes shaping erosional landscapes in continental clastic deposits, especially conglomerates and sandstones. These landscapes, which range from plateaus through dissected terrains to plains with residual hills, are known in China as Danxia, but have equivalents in other countries, in various environmental settings. Danxia rock landscapes are often immensely scenic, but insufficiently understood scientifically. Processes operating at different temporal and spatial scales will be of interest, from weathering to complex landform evolution. Likewise, we welcome studies based on different approaches, from field observations to geomorphometric studies and modelling. Contributions from areas underlain by clastic deposits of non-continental origin are also welcome as they will help to analyze similarities and differences between erosional landscapes on clastic rocks of different origin.
S38 Extreme Events in Geomorphology
Chairs: Margreth KEILER (Switzerland)
Extreme events have been debated in our community for decades in the context of the evolution of landscapes, stationarity, geomorphic system dynamics, frequency/magnitude and natural hazards. This session will illustrate the different foci on extreme events in geomorphology such as the geomorphological response to single extreme events (e.g. climate- or earthquake-related), the effect of geomorphological extreme events on landscape evolution or their impact on society. The following main questions will be discussed in the session and should be addressed by all contributions: When should a considered event be called extreme? Should an event be labelled extreme depending on the triggering condition, the high magnitude of the geomorphic processes or the effect on the society or another measure? To what extent do geomorphic systems buffer extreme triggering events? Is an extreme geomorphic event also labelled as extreme event for the society? We would like to invite contributions dealing with the analysis, modelling or conceptual approach of extreme events in geomorphology.
S39 Land Degradation and Hazards in a Changing Environment
(Session of the IGU Commissions on Land Degradation and Desertification as well as Hazard and Risk)
Chairs: Pawel PROKOP (Poland)
Kate ROWNTREE (South Africa)
Owen GRAHAM (Australia)
Chandan GHOSH

It is almost certain that global environmental change is affecting the frequency and severity of natural hazards. Human activities can cause or increase their effects, as well as reducing the mitigating effects of natural ecosystems. Both natural and human induced hazards can lead to land degradation. Understanding and managing linkages and common feedbacks between them, within a changing environment, is one of the greatest challenges of our time.

The IGU Commissions on Land Degradation and Desertification as well as Hazard and Risk welcome contributions on a range of topics related to the consequences of human intervention in environment i.e. dynamics of natural hazards, land degradation, desertification, soil erosion, climate change, and environmental management and policy. We seek papers that examine the interrelationship between hazard and land degradation within a variety of subfields that utilize a diverse range of approaches (field, modelling, historic, process, etc...). We also welcome presentations on resilience studies for natural disaster, disaster sciences and risk communication studies.

S40 Young Geomorphologists’ Session
Chairs: Brian WHALLEY (UK)